Lathyrus taxa are used in different areas including nutritive, agricultural areas, and they are seen as the source of both protein and phenolics. Lathyrus taxa seeds contain a neurotoxic substance called beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid (beta-ODAP) in different amounts. Lathyrus species grown in Turkey is reported to have low beta-ODAP and high protein content. In this study, antioxidant activities, phenolic profiles, beta-ODAP and protein contents of six Lathyrus taxa were investigated. Total phenolic content (TPC) in Lathyrus taxa used was ranging from 0.17 +/- 0.05 to 5.10 +/- 0.02. The antioxidant activities were observed in a wide interval that IC50 values were between 7.05 +/- 0.11 to 1.15 +/- 0.08 mg/mL. The highest TPC and antioxidant activity were recorded for L. clymenum. In HPLC analysis, gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, caffeic, chlorogenic acid and epicatechin in all of the extracts were determined. Also, beta-ODAP and protein contents in seeds of the Lathyrus taxa were found between 0.20-1.18 mg/g and 22.66-29.74%, respectively. beta-ODAP contents of investigated Layhyrus taxa were within the safe consumption range in terms of health (<2.00 mg/g). The investigated Lathyrus taxa were found to be excellent protein sources with low beta-ODAP content and contain natural antioxidants. As a result, this study has provided important data for wild Lathyrus taxa to be used as a cheap protein source and functional food for promoting health.