Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico, vol.23, pp.682-696, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI Expanded)
Day by day, the health and economical burden of cancer increases globally. Indeed it can be considered that there is ''cancer pandemic''. Blocking the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARB) are widely used measures to treat hypertension and heart failure. It has been recently suggested the activation and blocking of RAS has been associated with various types of cancer in epidemiological and experimental studies. Various studies have shown that RAS blockage is protective in some cancers. However, although fewer, contradictory data also showed that RAS blockage is either not related or adversely related to cancer. Although the reasons for these findings are not exactly known, different types of receptors and effectors in RAS may account for these findings. In the current review, we summarize the different RAS receptors and cancer development with regard to epidemiology, and pathogenesis including cell signaling pathways, apoptosis, genetic and epigenetic factors.