This research sought to characterize the essential oils of Satureja thymbra and Thymbra spicata var. spicata in terms of composition as well as their antioxidant and enzyme-inhibitory activities. The major components of essential oil derived from S. thymbra were found to be gamma-terpinene (34.67%), carvacrol (32.45%), p-cymene (11.46%), and beta-caryophyllene (6.85%). In the essential oil derived from T. spicata var. spicata the most abundant compounds were carvacrol (63.23%), gamma-terpinene (18.94%), and p-cymene (8.31%). The essential oils exhibited antioxidant properties, based on ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC assays, as well as antiradical activity against superoxide, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals, and ferrous ion chelating activity. The essential oils were found to have inhibitory effects against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), tyrosinase, and alpha-glucosidase. Considering the results obtained, the essential oils from both plants can be used as ingredients in pharmaceuticals or as natural additives in the food industry for promoting health.