This paper describes Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) generation and its associated technical issues. As AMD is recognized as one of the more serious environmental problems in the mining industry, its causes, prediction and treatment have become the focus of a number of research initiatives commissioned by governments, the mining industry, universities and research establishments, with additional inputs from the general public and environmental groups. In industry, contamination from AMD is associated with construction, civil engineering mining and quarrying activities. Its environmental impact, however, can be minimized at three basic levels: through primary prevention of the acid-generating process; secondary control, which involves deployment of acid drainage migration prevention measures; and tertiary control, or the collection and treatment of effluent. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.