Leach solutions and wastes of the Bayer process are important resources for metals such as aluminum and vanadium. Despite the fact that vanadium is precipitated as cake and removed in the Seydisehir Eti Aluminum Facility (Turkey), it cannot be,used due to low metal content and impurities it contains. Within the scope of this study, research and development of environmentally acceptable, technically sound and low-cost chemical leaching and recovery methods were conducted for the recovery of vanadium from the by-product cake of the Bayer process. In the conducted studies, a sample of vanadium cake was used after its detailed characterization. Roasting tests were performed in order to remove the arsenic from the vanadium cake; however, it was found that roasting was not effective for arsenic removal. The performances of different reagents were examined in chemical leaching tests (H2O and H2SO4 leaching, H2SO4 leaching with the addition of NaSO3, and NH4F); in the H2SO4 leaching tests performed with the addition of Na2SO3, the effects of concentrations of reagents and temperature on the efficiency of vanadium recovery (max. 93.09%) were determined with the full factorial experimental design method. The results were evaluated with ANOVA (variance analysis) method, and empirical models were formed. In lab and semi-pilot scale leaching tests, vanadium recoveries were 96.34% and 94.76% respectively. Vanadium was precipitated with NaOH and FeSO4 and almost all vanadium (95.8%) was obtained as Fe-3(VO4)(2). Cost analysis and economic evaluation have shown the economic feasibility of the leaching and recovery processes proposed. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.