We aimed to evaluate the mutagenic effect of Anilofos, organophosphate pesticide, by using Ames/Salmonella/microsome test. Its cytotoxic and genotoxic effects were also determined by chromosome aberration (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus (MN) test in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. In the Ames test, five different concentrations of Anilofos were examined on TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102 strains in the absence and presence of S9 fraction. According to the results all concentrations of this pesticide have not shown any mutagenic activity on TA97, TA100 and TA102 strains in the absence and presence of S9 fraction. But, 10, 100 and 1000 A mu g/plate concentrations of Anilofos were determined to be mutagenic on TA98 strain without S9 fraction. Lymphocytes were treated with various concentrations (25, 50, 100 and 200 A mu g/ml) of Anilofos for 24 and 48 h. The results of the assays showed that Anilofos did not induce SCE frequency, replication index and MN formation at all concentrations for both treatment periods. Anilofos significantly increased CA frequency at 100 and 200 A mu g/ml concentrations at 24 h treatment periods and at 50, 100 and 200 A mu g/ml concentrations in 48 h treatment periods. Additionally, it was determined that this pesticide decreased mitotic index and nuclear division index significantly. It was concluded that Anilofos has genotoxic and cytotoxic effects in human peripheral lymphocytes.