Background: Cisplatin (CiSP), a chemotherapeutic agent, is widely used to treat several types of cancers. However, its clinical use is limited due to adverse side effects caused by excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and death of neurons. The transient receptor potential (TRP) melastatin 2 (TRPM2) cation channel is activated by ADP-ribose (ADPR) and ROS. The protective effect of curcumin (CURCU) against CiSP-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial ROS through inhibition of TRP channels in several types of neuron except optic nerve, was recently reported. The aim of the current study is to clarify the protective effect of CURCU on CiSP-induced mitochondrial oxidative injury and TRPM2 activation in the mice optic nerve and SH-SY5Y human derived neuronal cells. Material and methods: The SH-SY5Y cells and mice were divided into four groups: Control, CURCU, CiSP, and CURCU + CiSP. The mice were treated for 14 days and the cells were incubated with CiSP and CURCU for 24 h. Results: CURCU and PARP-1 inhibitor (PJ34) treatments ameliorated CiSP-induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization, mitochondrial and cytosolic ROS levels and neuronal death in the optic nerve. In the patch-clamp of SH-SY5Y cells and laser confocal microscopy experiments of optic nerve, CURCU and TRPM2 blocker treatments also decreased ADPR-induced TRPM2 currents and cytosolic free calcium ion (Ca2+) concentration, suggesting a suppression of Ca2+ influx and neuronal death. Conclusion: CURCU prevents CiSP-induced optic nerve oxidative injury and cell death by suppressing mitochondrial ROS production via regulating TRPM2 signaling pathways. CURCU may serve as a potential therapeutic target against CiSP-induced toxicity in the optic nerve of CiSP-treated patients.