Docetaxel (DOCE) is widely used to treat several types of glioblastoma. Adverse effects DOCE seriously limit its clinical use in several tissues. Its side effects on brain cortex and hippocampus have not been clarified yet. Limited data indicated a protective effect of melatonin (MLT) and selenium (SELEN) on DOCE-induced apoptosis, Ca2+ influx and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in several tissues except brain and hippocampus. The purpose of this study is to discover the protective effect of MLT and SELEN on DOCE-induced brain and hippocampus oxidative toxicity in mice. MLT and SELEN pretreatments significantly ameliorated acute DOCE-induced mitochondrial ROS production in the hippocampus and brain tissues by reducing levels of lipid peroxidation, intracellular ROS production and mitochondrial membrane depolarization, while increasing levels of total antioxidant status, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, MLT, alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, vitamin A, vitamin C and beta-carotene in the tissues. Furthermore, MLT and SELEN pretreatments increased cell viability and TRPM2 channel activation in the hippocampus and brain followed by decreased activations of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, and caspase -3 and-9, suggesting a suppression of calcium ion influx, apoptosis and inflammation responses. However, modulator role of SELEN on the values in the tissues is more significant than in the MLT treatment. MLT and SELEN prevent DOCE-induced hippocampus and brain injury by inhibiting mitochondrial ROS and cellular apoptosis through regulating caspase -3 and-9 activation signaling pathways. MLTand SELEN may serve as potential therapeutic targets against DOCE-induced toxicity in the hippocampus and brain.