Assessment of regional discharge and spring type using hydrograph and Maillet analyses in Kumalar Mountain region, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey


ARABIAN JOURNAL OF GEOSCIENCES, vol.14, no.22, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 14 Issue: 22
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12517-021-08736-2
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Geobase, INSPEC
  • Keywords: Natural springs, Flow, Discharge, Hydrography, Maillet, Kumalar, AQUIFER
  • Süleyman Demirel University Affiliated: Yes


Kumalar Mountain and its surroundings have an important groundwater potential for Sandikli and Suhut districts, due to intense spring discharges. The springs discharged from limestones and volcanic units and are used for drinking, using, and irrigation purposes. Therefore, it is of great importance to determine the capacities and potentials of such springs in the rural areas. The aim of this study is to reveal the hydraulic properties, discharge mechanisms, and potential of the natural springs located around the Kumalar Mountain region. Monthly flow measurements were made between September 2017 and September 2018 in 19 springs in the study area. The annual flow rates of the springs in the study area vary between 0.01 and 2.10 l/s. Spring flow rates are increased in the rainy seasons. The annual base flow and average flow rates of springs were calculated by hydrography analysis and are 311.04-57,024 m(3)/year and 0.01-1.81 l/s respectively. The coefficient of discharge (alpha) 8.77 x 10(-4)-9.82 x 10(-3) day(-1), flow variability (Q(d)) 0.10-0.69 l/s, and average base flow (Q(b)) 0.01-2.03 l/s values were calculated by Maillet equation. According to the coefficients of discharge and flow variation, springs were determined as "types 2 and 3". Torun spring in Yiprak which feed by limestone has the highest flow.