Prevalence of the extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi and extensor indicis tendons and their variations


HAND SURGERY & REHABILITATION, vol.39, no.4, pp.320-327, 2020 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 39 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.hansur.2020.02.010
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.320-327


We aimed to investigate tendon variations of the extensor digitorum (ED), extensor digiti minimi (EDM), and extensor indicis proprius (EIP) muscles. Our study was performed on 43 fetal cadavers (86 extremities), aged between 17 and 40 weeks of gestation. The number of ED tendons varied from three to six, proximal to the extensor retinaculum (ER), and from three to eight, distal to the ER. The ED most often had four tendons, both proximally and distally from the ER. The ED tendons of the fourth finger were observed to be most frequently duplicated. The most common juncturae tendinum (JT) was type 1 in the second intermetacarpal space (IMCS), type 2 in the third IMCS, and type 3r in the fourth IMCS according to von Schroeder classification. The number of EIP and EDM tendons varied from one to two and from one to five, respectively. The EIP double tendons inserted both into the ulnar and palmar sides of the extensor digitorum of the second finger, which had not been reported in the literature. In our study, 7% of hands had variant muscles. In 4.7% of hands, the extensor indicis et medii communis was observed, while the extensor medii proprius and the extensor digitorum brevis manus were observed in 1.2% and 1.2% of hands, respectively. Knowing the prevalence of the ED, EDM and EIP tendons and their variations in the fetal period should help to treat partial loss of hand function or injury after birth and to correct congenital hand deformities. (C) 2020 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.