Country-Based Export Concentration of Türkiye and BRICS and Export Similarity to the EU Market (2001-2021)

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Fiscaoeconomia, vol.7, no.3, pp.2177-2198, 2023 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 7 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.25295/fsecon.1288028
  • Journal Name: Fiscaoeconomia
  • Journal Indexes: Directory of Open Access Journals, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.2177-2198
  • Süleyman Demirel University Affiliated: Yes


The aim of the study is to examine the country-based concentration of exports of Türkiye and BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) and export similarity to the European Union (EU) common market. Data were obtained from the International Trade Center Trademap database. In the study, according to the data of 2021, Türkiye and the first five countries in the export of BRICS are included. While the country-based concentration of Türkiye and BRICS for the period 2001-2021 was analyzed using the Gini-Hirschman Index (GHI), the Export Similarity Index (ESI) was used for export similarity to the EU common market. The results of the study show that while the product variety in Türkiye's exports to the United Kingdom, the United States, and Germany has increased significantly over time, the product variety in exports to Italy and Spain shows a fluctuating course, according to the coefficient values calculated by the GHI method. While there was no major change in product diversity in BRICS exports to the USA, Japan and South Korea during the period under review, product diversity in exports to Hong Kong showed a fluctuating course, but product diversity decreased significantly in 2021. There is no radical change in product diversity in BRICS exports to China. The fact that the exports of Türkiye and BRICS to the EU market have an ESI value of 60.75 means that they are in competition in the relevant product groups and pose a threat to each other.