© 2022 The Author(s).Background. The study aimed to compare the airway morphology and hyoid bone position in children undergoing adenoidectomy or adenotonsillectomy with healthy individuals with no skeletal problems in similar age and development period. Methods. The subjects in the study were divided into three groups. These groups were defined as those having undergone adenoidectomy (53 children), those having undergone adenotonsillectomy (48 children), and the systemically healthy control group (63 children). Seventeen pharyngeal airway, nine hyoid, and four area measurements were used in the cephalometric radiographs of the children in all the groups. One-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate the children in each group. In addition, Tukey tests were used for a bilateral comparison of significant parameters. The results were considered statistically significant at P < 0.05. Results. The mean age of 164 patients in the study group was 12.76 ± 2.85 years. The vertical airway length significantly decreased in the adenotonsillectomy group compared to other groups, while the epiglottic pharyngeal length significantly increased in the former than in the latter (P < 0.05). The area measurements showed that although the oropharynx area significantly increased in the adenotonsillectomy group compared to other groups, the hypopharynx and total area measurements were significantly different compared with the control group (P < 0.05). No statistically significant difference was found between the three groups in all measurements of the hyoid bone position (P > 0.05). Conclusion. The study showed that adenotonsillectomy operations caused more increases in the oropharynx and hypopharynx parts of the pharyngeal airway. Adenoidectomy and adenotonsillectomy operations did not contribute significantly to the hyoid bone position.