A novel approach to radiographic detection of growth development period with hand-wrist radiographs: A preliminary study with ImageJ imaging software

Satir S., BÜYÜKÇAVUŞ M. H., SARI Ö. F., Cimen T.

ORTHODONTICS & CRANIOFACIAL RESEARCH, vol.26, no.1, pp.100-106, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 26 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/ocr.12584
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.100-106
  • Keywords: artificial intelligence, growth and development, hand-wrist radiographs, ImageJ, orthodontics, BONE-AGE ASSESSMENT, ARTIFICIAL-INTELLIGENCE
  • Süleyman Demirel University Affiliated: Yes


Objective The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not the ImageJ program can be used to automatically determine the growth period of the hand and wrist which have different growth-development periods according to the density values in the phalanges in radiographs. Setting and sample population Our study included hands-wrist radiographs of 270 individuals aged 8-17 years. Material and Methods The study's participants were classified into 7 groups according to their skeletal maturation stage (PP2=, MP3=, MP3cap, DP3u, PP3u, MP3u, and Ru) which included pre-peak, peak, and post-peak periods. The total density values (TDV) and pure density values (PDV) in the distal, medial, and proximal phalanges were calculated using each radiograph in the ImageJ program. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate the density values and chronological age, and pairwise comparisons were made using the post-hoc LSD test. Results The total density value was graphically zigzagged in the mesial, distal, and proximal phalanges. However, the pure density value increased continuously until the post-peak period and decreased after the DP3u period until the Ru period. While no significant difference in total density values was observed between the growth periods for all three phalanges, a significant difference in pure density values was observed. Conclusion It has been demonstrated in the ImageJ program that the peak growth period can be distinguished using the pure density values obtained from all phalanges of the third finger and that this method can be used as an alternative to the growth period detection through artificial intelligence.