The effects of exogenous polyamines (PAs): spermine (Spm), spermidine (Spd), cadaverine (Cad) and putrescine (Put) on mitotic activity and chromosomal aberrations in root meristem cells of Hordeum vulgare L. (barley) seeds exposed to salinity were analyzed. The PAs significantly inhibited cell division in distilled water. Furthermore, most of these PAs (except for Spd) caused a significant increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations as compared to control group. Seeds treated with Put caused the highest percentage of mitotic abnormalities in total. The negative effect of salinity on mitotic index and the frequency of chromosomal aberrations increased with increasing salt concentration. PAs studied could not be successful in ameliorating of the negative effect of salinity on mitotic activity. Particularly, exposure to Cad and 0.40 M NaCl caused a complete block of cell division in total. However, most of the PA studied showed a perfectly performance in alleviating the detrimental effects of increasing salinity on chromosomal aberrations.