The Effects of Psychostimulants on Oral Health and Saliva in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Case-Control Study


Ertugrul C. C. , KIRZIOĞLU Z. , AKTEPE E. , Savas H. B.

NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE, cilt.21, ss.1213-1220, 2018 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 21 Konu: 9
  • Basım Tarihi: 2018
  • Doi Numarası: 10.4103/njcp.njcp_385_17
  • Dergi Adı: NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.1213-1220

Özet

Introduction: This study investigated the dental health problems and saliva characteristics of children under psychostimulant therapy for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty children aged 7-12 years were divided into three groups. Groups 1-2 comprised children diagnosed with ADHD: those who had not yet started psychostimulant therapy (Group 1) and those already receiving long-term psychostimulant therapy (Group 2). Group 3 comprised healthy, nonmedicated children. Possible side effects of psychostimulants were investigated at the beginning of study in Group 2 and after 3 months drug use in Group 1. Bruxism and dental erosion prevalence, salivary Streptococcus mutans count, buffering capacity, and stimulated salivary flow rate (SSFR) were measured, and salivary a-amylase, calcium, total protein, and proline-rich acidic protein (PRAP) levels were quantified in the beginning of the study. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: The most frequently reported side effects of psychostimulants were decreased appetite, dry mouth, and increased fluid consumption. The prevalence of bruxism and dental erosion was higher in Groups 1 and 2 than in Group 3, but the differences were not significant (P > 0.05). In Group 2, subjective dry mouth feel was reported by 32.5% of patients and 17.5% had a very low SSFR. Salivary a-amylase, calcium, total protein, and PRAP levels were lower in Group 2 than the others, but the differences were not significant (P > 0.05). Conclusions: ADHD and psychostimulant therapy do not appear to be significantly related to decreasing SSFR or protective saliva components against dental caries. However, a systematic investigation of the long-term safety of psychostimulants is needed. The most effective method of maintaining dental health of children with ADHD is frequent appointments focusing on oral hygiene practices accompanied by dietary analyses.