Purpose The aim of this study was to assess depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and eating psychopathology in bariatric surgery patients at the preoperative period (t0) and at the 6-month (t1) and 12-month (t2) follow-ups after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). A second aim was to investigate associations between these variables and weight loss. Method The study participants were 48 bariatric surgery candidates and 50 non-obese controls. Both groups underwent assessment with the Sociodemographic Data Form, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES). These assessments were repeated for the patient group at t1 and t2. Results The HDRS, RSES, and EDE-Q scores were higher in the patients before LSG (t0) than in the control group. A significant progressive improvement was identified in the patient HDRS and RSES scores as well as EDE-Q weight and shape subscale scores at t1 and t2. However, the patient EDE-Q total and dietary restraint scores improved at t1 then stabilized. The patient EDE-Q eating concern subscale improved at t1, but then worsened. The patient HDRS scores at t2 were similar to the control group, but the EDE-Q and RSES scores were still higher than the control scores at t2. Regression analyses revealed no association between the preoperative scores and percent changes in postoperative scores for any scale and patient weight loss at t2. Conclusion Depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and eating psychopathology showed an improving trend in patients after LSG. However, some aspects of eating psychopathology worsened despite an initial improvement.