Interconnections of fibroblast growth factor 23 and klotho with erythropoietin and hypoxia-inducible factor


AFŞAR B. , Kanbay M., ELSÜRER AFŞAR R.

MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY, 2022 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11010-022-04422-3
  • Title of Journal : MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY
  • Keywords: Erythropoietin, Fibroblast growth factor 23, Hematopoiesis, Hypoxia-inducible factor, Klotho, GENE-EXPRESSION, FGF23, BONE, CELL, OSTEOBLAST, MICE, DIFFERENTIATION, PHOSPHATE, ANEMIA, FIBROBLAST-GROWTH-FACTOR-23

Abstract

Bone marrow (BM) hematopoiesis is tightly regulated process and bone components such as osteoblasts, extracellular matrix, and minerals influence hematopoiesis via regulation of hematopoietic stem cell function. Erythropoietin (EPO) secreted mostly by renal EPO producing (REP) cells which employ the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway. When tissue hypoxia occurs, HIFs bind to hypoxia response element in the EPO promoter and induce EPO production. EPO binds to the EPO receptor on red cell progenitors in the BM and triggers expansion of red cell mass. Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) which is secreted mostly by osteoblasts and less by BM impacts hematopoiesis by influencing EPO production. Reciprocally, increases of EPO (acute or chronic) influence both FG23 production and cleavage resulting in variation of c fragment FGF23 (cFGF23) and intact FGF23 (iFGF23) ratios. As HIFs stimulate EPO production, they indirectly affect FGF23. Direct stimulation of FGF23 synthesis by binding of HIF on FGF23 promoter is also suggested. FGF23 cleavage by furin is another potential mechanism affecting FGF23 levels. Klotho is present in membrane-bound (transmembrane) and free (circulating) forms. Transmembrane klotho is the co-receptor of FGF23 and forms complexes with FGF23 receptors in the membrane surface and required for FGF23 actions. Recent evidence showed that klotho is also associated with EPO and HIF production suggesting a complex relationship between FGF23, klotho, EPO, and HIF. In this review, we have summarized the connections between FGF23, klotho, HIF, and EPO and their reflections to hematopoiesis.