Many complications related to the resection of an ossified posterior longitudinal ligament via the anterior approach have been reported. Postoperative neurological deterioration is one such complication that may appear due to massive anterior spinal cord herniation related to a dural defect following resection of the ossified posterior longitudinal ligament. Specifically, spinal cord herniations have been reported to be associated with posterior approaches, and a large number of theories regarding this association have been offered by various authors. However, anterior spinal cord herniation is extremely rare, and its pathophysiology has not yet been explained. In this case report, we report a male patient who experienced anterior spinal cord herniation following anterior surgery. Spinal cord herniation may develop following the removal of the anterior cervical corpectomy. Therefore, surgeons should be aware of this condition when planning treatments for cervical spondylotic myelopathy via the anterior approach. (C) 2016 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.