The objective of this research is to do the economic analysis of pesticide application practices and level of pesticides used by the farmers in wheat production for sustainable rural development in Turkey. The primary data were collected from 84 wheat producers. Results of this research show that the average area of wheat production was 3.91 ha with 3 461.90 kg ha(-1). The average cost of wheat production was EUR 549.94 ha(-1). It was calculated that the average usage of pesticides was 1 10 3.50 g per hectare as an active ingredient in the wheat production. The average usages per hectare of active ingredient of insecticides, fungicides and herbicides were determined to be 48.00 g, 146.60 g and 908.90 g, respectively. Herbicides are the biggest pesticide group used in wheat production. They accounted for 82.37% of total weight of active ingredients, followed by fungicides (13.28 %) and insecticides (4.35 %). The study revealed that the farmers were using herbicides more than the recommended, fungicides and insecticides less than the recommended dosages. It was calculated that the average plant protection costs was EUR 50.25 ha(-1) which was 9.14 % of wheat production costs. The percentages of average plant protection costs were 85.0 3 %, 9.24 % and 5.73 % herbicides, insecticides and fungicides, respectively. The gain threshold was calculated to be 228.39 kg ha(-1). As a result, government should be promoting research into application technologies that mitigate risk and cost and maximize gain from pesticide used. Also, pest management and farmer training programmes in all crops should be developed to ensure sustainable food security, food safety, farmers' income, and rural development.