Fluorescence labelled XT5 modified nano-capsules enable highly sensitive myeloma cells detection

Dizaji A. N., Kohneshahri M. Y., Gafil S., MUHAMMED M. T., ÖZKAN T., Inci I., ...More

NANOTECHNOLOGY, vol.33, no.26, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 33 Issue: 26
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1088/1361-6528/ac60dc
  • Journal Name: NANOTECHNOLOGY
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, EMBASE, INSPEC, MEDLINE, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: protease-activated receptor-1, XT5 modified nano-capsules, fluorescence label, myeloma cancer cell, specific targeting, PROTEASE-ACTIVATED RECEPTORS, CANCER, DELIVERY, DYES
  • Süleyman Demirel University Affiliated: Yes


Accurate diagnosis of cancer cells in early stages plays an important role in reliable therapeutic strategies. In this study, we aimed to develop fluorescence-conjugated polymer carrying nanocapsules (NCs) which is highly selective for myeloma cancer cells. To gain specific targeting properties, NCs, XT5 molecules (a benzamide derivative) which shows high affinity properties against protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), that overexpressed in myeloma cancer cells, was used. For this purpose, 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[carboxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000]-carboxylic acid (DSPE-PEG(2000)-COOH) molecules, as a main encapsulation material, was conjugated to XT5 molecules due to esterification reaction using N,N '-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide as a coupling agent. The synthesized DSPE-PEG(2000)-COO-XT5 was characterized by using FT-IR and H-1 NMR spectroscopies and results indicated that XT5 molecules were successfully conjugated to DSPE-PEG(2000)-COOH. Poly(fluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (PFBT) conjugated polymer (CP) was encapsulated with DSPE-PEG(2000)-COO-XT5 due to dissolving in tetrahydrofuran and ultra-sonication in an aqueous solution, respectively. The morphological properties, UV-vis absorbance, and emission properties of obtained CP encapsulated DSPE-PEG(2000)-COO-XT5 (CPDP-XT5) NCs was determined by utilizing scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, and fluorescent spectroscopy, respectively. Cytotoxicity properties of CPDP-XT5 was evaluated by performing MTT assay on RPMI 8226 myeloma cell lines. Cell viability results confirmed that XT5 molecules were successfully conjugated to DSPE-PEG(2000)-COOH. Specific targeting properties of CPDP-XT5 NCs and XT5-free NCs (CPDP NCs) were investigated on RPMI 8226 myeloma cell lines by utilizing fluorescent microscopy and results indicated that CPDP-XT5 NCs shows significantly high affinity in comparison to CPDP NCs against the cells. Homology modeling and molecular docking properties of XT5 molecules were evaluated and simulation results confirmed our results.