Aim: It has been speculated that trace elements may play a role in some type of cancers. The aim of the present study was to examine the diagnostic utility of trace elements in pleural fluid with pleural effusions. Material and Method: This study consisted of 38 patients diagnosed with malignant and benign pleural effusions. Chrome, nickel, selenium, copper, lead and zinc concentrations in samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Results: No significant difference was found between malignant and benign effusions with respect to Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn concentrations in samples. Discussion: Trace elements have function as the component of many enzymes and the catalyst of some chemical reactions. There have been studies demonstrating the association of the deficiency or surplus of trace elements (TEs) with various type of cancers. In our study, the role of TEs measured in the pleural effusions in the differential diagnosis in the effusion etiology could not be demonstrated.