Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/titanium dioxide (PEDOT/TiO2) nanocomposites and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) homopolymers were synthesized chemically in the presence of anionic (sodium dodecylsulfate, SDS) and cationic (tetradecyltrimethylammoniumbromide, TTAB) surfactants. The effect of surfactant on structural and morphological properties of the nanocomposites was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), four-probe conductivity measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. It was observed from SEM study that the nanocomposites show globular particle structure with different particle size. The PEDOT/TiO2 nanocomposite has higher conductivity than that of pure PEDOT homopolymer. The presence of surfactant during PEDOT/TiO2 nanocomposites synthesis influenced thermal stability of the prepared samples. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.