The effects of systemically administered rosuvastatin on alveolar bone loss (ABL), cytokine levels and oxidative status were investigated in rats with ligature-induced periodontitis. Rats were divided randomly into four groups: a non-ligated group (C); a non-ligated+rosuvastatin group (R); a ligated group (P); and a ligated+rosuvastatin group (PR). Ligatures were placed at the maxillary second molars, and rosuvastatin was administered for 14 days. After the rats had been euthanatized, histomorphometric and histological analyses were performed, and the serum levels of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-10 and oxidant and antioxidant parameters (malondialdehyde [MDA], superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase) were evaluted by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Rosuvastatin significantly decreased the extent of ABL, inflammatory infiltration and osteoclasts in periodontitis, but increased the numbers of osteoblasts. Although rosuvastatin reduced the levels of IL-1 beta, they did not differ significantly between the PR and P groups. In the PR group, not only were IL-10 levels significantly higher but also the ratio of IL-1 beta to IL-10 was lower than in the P group. Although MDA levels were significantly increased in the P group relative to the C group, they did not differ significantly between the PR and C groups. The present data suggest that rosuvastatin decreases ABL in ligature-induced periodontitis, and that its anti-inflammatory effect is more remarkable than its antioxidant effect.