We report the synthesis and characterization of a series of conducting poly(2-chloroanitine) (P2ClAn)/red mud (RM) nanocomposite materials. The polymerization of 2-chloroaniline in an aqueous medium in the presence of (NH4)(2)S2O8 and RM resulted in the formation of a nanocomposite (P(2)ClAn/RM). The extent of P(2)ClAn loading in the composites increased with increasing oxidant and monomer concentrations but decreased with RM. The properties of the nanocomposites were characterized with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), conductivity measurements, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The inclusion of P(2)ClAn in the composites was confirmed by FTIR studies. The UV-vis spectra of P(2)ClAn/RM nanocomposites were similar to that of P(2)ClAn. The conductivity changed in all the composites prepared under various conditions. Thermogravimetric analyses revealed the enhanced thermal stabilities of the nanocomposites with respect to P(2)ClAn. Morphological images of the as-synthesized materials were also investigated with scanning electron microscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy.