We perform a quantitative study of the microscopic effective shell-model interactions in the valence sd shell, obtained from modern nucleon-nucleon potentials, chiral N3LO, JISP16, and Daejeon16, using no-core shell-model wave functions and the Okubo-Lee-Suzuki transformation. We investigate the monopole properties of those interactions in comparison with the phenomenological universal sd-shell interaction, USDB. Theoretical binding energies and low-energy spectra of O isotopes and of selected sd-shell nuclei, are presented. We conclude that there is a noticeable improvement in the quality of the effective interaction when it is derived from the Daejeon16 potential. We show that its proton-neutron centroids are consistent with those from USDB. We then propose monopole modifications of the Daejeon16 centroids in order to provide an adjusted interaction yielding significantly improved agreement with the experiment. A spin-tensor decomposition of two-body effective interactions is applied in order to extract more information on the structure of the centroids and to understand the reason for deficiencies arising from our current theoretical approximations. The issue of the possible role of the three-nucleon forces is addressed.