Objective: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder that is characterized by irresistible unpleasant sensation in the legs urging to move them and relieving by movement. We aimed to investigate the frequency and severity of RLS, which is common among dialysis patients and the factors affecting it. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 48 hemodialysis and 43 peritoneal dialysis patients were included. All patients were both questioned for the presence of the minimum criteria of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG) and also were evaluated by a single neurologist. The diagnosis was based on neurological examination. The severity of RLS was assessed by the "IRLSSG Severity Scale". The correlation of sociodemographic and laboratory parameters with the presence and severity of RLS was investigated. Results: The mean age was 54.1 +/- 13.7 years and the mean duration of dialysis was 43.4 +/- 31.4 months. RLS was found in 30.8% of all patients (25% in hemodialysis and 37.2% in peritoneal dialysis patients) and the frequency and severity of RLS was not different significantly between these 2 groups. Serum creatinine, body mass index (BMI) and actual hypertension were independent predictors for the presence of RLS in logistic regression analysis. Age and serum ferritin level were independent predictors for the severity of RLS. Conclusion: RLS is common in uremic patients. Dialysis modalities do not have an effect on the prevalence and severity of RLS. The treatment approach for these improvable factors such as serum creatinine, serum ferritin, BMI and hypertension that influence the presence and severity of RLS may be preventive and useful for the treatment of RLS.