Purpose: This study aimed to investigate cognition, proprioception, and sensory/physical function in stroke patients with urinary incontinence (UI). Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 53 individuals with stroke (23 had UI and 21 matched controls). The Incontinence Impact Questionnaire Short Form (IIQ-7) and Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) were used to assess the patients’ UI symptoms. Participants were also evaluated with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Barthel Index (BI), Fugl-Meyer Sensory Assessment (FMA-S), Five Times Sit to Stand Test (FTSST), Functional Reach Test (FRT) and Proprioception Test. Results: FTSST, FRT and FMA-S were better in stroke subjects without UI (p < 0.05). There was a moderate correlation between IIQ-7 with FMA-S, FTSST and proprioception (left extremity) (r 1: − 0.415, r 2: 0.440, r 3: 0.430, p < 0.05) and a low correlation with BI (r: − 0.356, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Individuals with UI had worse sensory/motor function and static balance. Stroke patients with UI were more dependent, had less sensory function, and had worse lower extremity muscle strength and proprioception as the level of urinary incontinence increased. To reduce urinary incontinence, emphasis on motor/sensory function, balance, and proprioception should be considered.