Recently, tree stumps have attracted attention as a source of woody biomass. This study investigated the practicability of brutian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) root as an alternative raw material in the essential oil industry. The composition of volatile compounds of brutian pine root was investigated and compared with that of brutian pine stem wood. In the wood sample, the major volatile compound was alpha-pinene (32.69%) and in the root sample it was beta-caryophyllene (25.41%). Terpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, Delta(3)-carene, beta-caryophyllene, and alpha-humulene) constituted the major compounds in the wood sample, whereas oxygen-containing components (linalool and (E)-anethole) were the main compounds in the root sample, in addition to terpenes (limonene, beta-caryophyllene, and alpha-humulene). Monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, terpene oxides, alcohols, aldehydes, ethers, esters, and ketones were identified as the main groups of volatile compounds in the wood and root samples of brutian pine. Except for monoterpenes, the amounts of the other main groups of volatile compounds were higher in the root sample than in the wood sample. The variation and number of detected volatile compounds indicate that the root of brutian pine might be a useful raw material for some industrial processes that use these volatile compounds in their production.