The separation efficiency and selectivity of flotation are directly proportional to recoveries of the mineral species in the feed due to true flotation and entrainment. In this study, effects of the hydrodynamic conditions on true flotation and entrainment were investigated by using a fractional factorial experimental design. A method previously described in the literature was applied to determine the contributions of true flotation and entrainment in flotation of a complex sulphide ore. In order to apply the method, the kinetic flotation tests were conducted under various hydrodynamic conditions defined by some physical variables. Some of these tests were conducted in the presence and absence of a collector to evaluate the self-induced floatability. The selectivity index of the mineral species for entrainment was seen to be suitable evaluation of the non-selectivity and efficiency of the entrainment. Furthermore, the results of the size-by-size analysis of the froth products indicated that the presence of the self-induced hydrophobic particles in the feed is as important as the presence of very fine particles for accurate estimation of true flotation and entrainment in notation of a complex sulphide ore. in addition, the estimated results for entrainment in flotation of the complex sulphide ore can be misleading. Therefore, a new approach would be necessary to determine the contributions of true flotation and entrainment in flotation of a complex sulphide ore. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.