Background Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) are common in children. Antibiotics still continue to be prescribed although most URTIs are of viral origin. This is inappropriate use and this unnecessary administration contributes or may cause antibiotic resistance. The problem of unnecessary antibiotic use among children is a concern for antibiotic resistance in low- and middle-income developing countries. This study aims to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of parents of children with upper respiratory tract infections regarding antibiotic use and their antibiotic administration practices in a tertiary care hospital in Turkey. Methods Our study is a cross-sectional survey study. It was carried out between 14 December 2020 and 1 April 2021 for parents over 18 years of age with a child under 18 years' old who applied to the general pediatrics outpatient clinics of Gazi University Faculty of Medicine Hospital Department of Pediatrics. Results Five hundred fifty-four parents responded to the questionnaire (93.2% rate of response). A total of 15.7% of parents stated to use antibiotics in any child with fever. 37% of parents believed that antibiotics could cure infections caused by viruses. 6.3% of parents declared that they put pressure on pediatricians to prescribe antibiotics. While 28% of the parents who thought that the use of inappropriate antibiotics would not change the effect and resistance of the treatment, 41% thought that new antibiotics could be developed continuously. 85.6% of the parents stated that they never gave their children non-prescription antibiotics when they had a high fever. 80.9% of them declared that they never used past antibiotics in the presence of a new infection. Conclusion According to the results of our study of parents' lack of knowledge about antibiotics in Turkey, though generally it shows proper attitude and practices. It shows that some of the restrictions imposed by the National Action Plan are partially working. However, it is still necessary to continue to inform parents, pediatricians and pharmacists about the use of antibiotics, and to be more sensitive about the prescribing of antibiotics, and if necessary, sanctions should be imposed by the state in order to prevent unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions.