Pesticides are used to control and avoid crop losses from pests, diseases and weeds. Various kinds of pesticides have been used in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production to increase yield and farm income, to decrease crop loss in Turkey. The objective of this research was to evaluate the economic and environmental effects of pesticide use for sustainable barley production. The primary data used in this study were collected from producers by using a face to face survey. To this end, data was obtained from 79 barley producers by using simple random sampling method. It is determined that the average usage of pesticides was 1,821.70 g.ha(-1) as an active ingredient in the barley production. The percentages of used pesticides were 57.72, 29.39 and 12.89% herbicides, insecticides and fungicides, respectively. It was calculated that average plant protection costs were 43.98 (sic).ha(-1) which was 9.96% of barley production costs. It was determined that the farmers used herbicides less than the recommended, fungicides and insecticides more than the recommended dosages. It was calculated that economic loss was 14.14 (sic).ha(-1) due to overdose of pesticides. It was calculated that 32.15% of economic loss was the average plant protection costs. The percentages of this loss were 93.27, 4.18 and 2.54% insecticides, fungicides and herbicides, respectively. The gain threshold was calculated to be 274.88 kg.ha(-1) and it was 7.95% of barley production per hectare. Consequently, an awareness it should be created to farmers that misuse (overdose or under dose) of pesticides which lead to crop loss, economic and environmental loss, major public health problem at the same time. For this reason, farmers should be given well-trained programs about the pest management and plant protection in all crops to ensure sustainable barley production, sustainable environment, food security, food safety and farmers' income.