The ontogeny and distribution of gastrin- and serotonin-immunoreactive (IR) cell in the proventriculus of chicks (Gallus gallus domestica, n = 60) in different growth periods was examined immunohistochemically using antisera specific to gastrin and serotonin. Gastrin and serotonin-IR cells were detected in chick proventriculus. Gastrin-IR cells were first evident after 12 days of incubation in lamina epithelialis and compound glands, while serotonin-IR cells were observed only in compound glands at that same time. Gastrin-IR and serotonin-IR cells increased in frequency on incubation day 14 and 16, respectively. Towards the end of incubation, gastrin- and serotonin-IR cell numbers decreased. In adult chicken, both IR cells were present but not lower numbers. The observations demonstrate the presence of gastrin- and serotonin-IR cells in the proventriculus of developing chicks in temporally changing frequencies.