Testicular artery occlusion causes an enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species, which contributes to the pathophysiology of tissue damage. Here, we have investigated the effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a new antioxidant and antiinflammatory agent, in rats subjected to testicular torsion/detorsion (T/D). Thirty-five male rats were divided into four groups: sham operation group (n = 8), torsion group (n = 9), T/ D + saline group (n = 9) and T/D + CAPE group (n = 9). Rats, except the sham operation group, were subjected to left unilateral torsion (720degrees rotation in the clockwise direction) without including the epididymis. After torsion (2 h) and detorsion (4 h) periods, rats were sacrificed and bilateral orchidectomy was performed. Testis tissues were washed with cold saline solution, cut into small pieces with scissors, placed into glass bottles and homogenised in four volumes of ice-cold Tris-HCl buffer. Clear supernatant fluid was used for biochemical analyses. Treating rats with CAPE (applied at 10 mumol/kg, 30 min prior to T/D) attenuated the testicular injury, as well as the increase in the tissue levels of myeloperoxidase and thiobarbituric acid-reactant substances (TBARS) caused by T/D in the testis. Testis tissues showed a significant increase in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity compared to the torsion group when CAPE was applied. Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate that CAPE treatment exerts a protective effect on testicular T/D, and part of this effect may be due to inhibiting the neutrophil-mediated cellular injury.