THE ROLE OF TOPOGRAPHY IN THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF TREE SPECIES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION OF TURKEY


Coban H. O. , Cosgun S.

FRESENIUS ENVIRONMENTAL BULLETIN, cilt.29, ss.1369-1378, 2020 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 29 Konu: 3
  • Basım Tarihi: 2020
  • Dergi Adı: FRESENIUS ENVIRONMENTAL BULLETIN
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.1369-1378

Özet

Forest is an ecological system comprised of topography, climate, bedrock, soil and living organisms. These dynamic ecological variables have an impact on the existence of tree species that form forests and the structure of pure or mix stands that they form with other tree species and the spatial distribution of stands. This study explored the impact of the topography on the spatial distribution of tree species that establish forests in areas under sea effect and areas that are not under see effect in the Mediterranean Region. A forest area of around 300,000 ha in Finike, Akseki and Elmali forest directorates were explored. The association of the forests of Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.), Anatolian black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold.), Taurus fir (Abies cilicica Cam), Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich.), Juniperus spp. and Quercus spp. that are the main tree species in Turkey's forests with some variables which were elevation, slope and aspect were analysed. In this study, the digital elevation model of the study area was developed on the basis of the digital contour line data with a scale of 1/25000 with the help of the Geographic Information System (GIS). From those surface data, 3D analyses were conducted and the data on elevation, slope and aspect were driven. GIS-based spatial analyses were conducted to determine the spatial and areal distribution of the tree species in the study area. The results of the study demonstrated that Pinus brutia (Pb) was distributed up to 1700 m in Finike where Pb and and Cedrus libani (Cl) are the dominant tree species. It was observed that Pb could grow on the slopes of corridors that could transfer the sea effect into the inner parts in Elmali and Akseki. In Akseki, Pinus nigra (Pn) and Abies cilicica (Ac) reached a certain size in the area and were mainly concentrated at elevations of 1100-1500 m and 1100-2000 m, respectively. Juniper species that were distributed mainly on the shady aspects (northwest, north, northeast and east) in Elmali preferred sunny aspects (southeast, south, southwest and west) in other regions. Pb, Cl, Ac and Pn were distributed on shady aspects at lower elevations where their natural distribution started in each of the three regions while they are located mainly on sunny aspects at higher elevations. There is a similar situation also as regards juniper species in Elmali. However, juniper and oak species are known to usually prefer sunny aspects. As regards the relation of forests with settlement and agricultural areas in the study sites, it was understood that forests were destroyed due to human impact, that's why they had to survive at higher slopes. It is suggested that information obtained from inquiries and analyses to be conducted through geographical information system should be used to protect the natural balance in forests and ensure their continuity while taking decisions that will affect the future of forests.