Artificial autotetraploids of diploid perennial rye (Secale montanum Guss) plants were obtained by colchicine treatment. C, C, and C, generations of autotetraploid perennial rye were compared for seed set and cytological characteristics such as irregularities in metaphase I (univalents) and anaphase I and II (lagging chromosomes and/or chromatids and bridge formation) and micronuclei in tetrads. In the three generations (C-1, C-2 and C-3) the percentage of cells with univalents was 18.51, 14.56 and 9.38% respectively. The percentage of cells with irregular anaphase I with univalents was 23.43, 15.93 and 7.85%, and for anaphase 11 cells it was 20.93, 16.47 and 7.16. The percentage of tetrads with micronuclei was 18.17, 14.07 and 6.17% and seed set was 27.72, 43.51 and 59.59% respectively. A negative correlation was found between seed set and the cytological characteristics investigated. The correlations among the characters investigated during meiosis division were statistically significant. Selection of vigorous plants of autotetraploid perennial rye increased seed setting by increasing the cytological balance. However, abnormalities in the early stage of meiosis division were reflected in the later stages of meiosis.