The study focuses on acid adsorption on cold ice particle surfaces. The investigation encompasses HCI, DCI, and HBr adsorbate spectroscopy, Monte Carlo simulations of molecular HCI adsorbate on a model ice particle, and ab initio studies of HCI solvation and ionization in mixed acid-water clusters. It is shown that ice nanocrystal surfaces offer a range of adsorption sites, in which HCl freezes in different recognizable solvation stages. These stages were identified spectroscopically and assigned, with the help of calculations, to weakly and strongly stretched HCI molecules, and to Zundel and hydronium ions that are products of proton transfer. At moderate submonolayer coverages in the 50-60 K range, the acid adsorbate is predominantly molecular. Heating promotes formation of contact hydronium - chloride ion pairs. Near 90 K, an ionization burst is observed, resulting in an ionic surface hydrate layer rich in Zundel cations.