R&D expenditures by field of science and GDP: Which causes which in Canada?


DOYAR B. V.

ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS LETTERS, cilt.8, ss.31-40, 2019 (ESCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 8 Konu: 1
  • Basım Tarihi: 2019
  • Doi Numarası: 10.17811/ebl.8.1.2019.31-40
  • Dergi Adı: ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS LETTERS
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.31-40

Özet

This paper attempts to reveal the relationship between GDP per capita and R&D expenditure per capita, R&D expenditure per capita on natural sciences and engineering, and R&D expenditure per capita on social sciences and humanities for Canada. Based on data from 1981 to 2014, bootstrap causality test proposed by Hacker and Hatemi-J (2006) show that there is a unidirectional causality from GDP per capita to R&D expenditure per capita, and a unidirectional causality from GDP per capita to R&D expenditure per capita on natural sciences and engineering. However, no causal relationship is observed between R&D expenditure per capita on social sciences and humanities and GDP per capita. These results may point an indirect relationship between the variables or the validity of R&D paradox and the European paradox for Canada.