Epilepsy is one of the oldest neurological conditions known to humankind. It is known that oxidative stress and generation of reactive oxygen species are a cause and consequence of epileptic seizures. Although recent years have seen tremendous progress in the molecular biology and metabolism of selenium, we still know little about the cell type-specific and temporal pattern of selenium and its derivatives in the brain of epileptic humans and experimental animals. It has been suggested that some antiepileptic drug therapies such as valproic acid, deplete the total body selenium level and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity although therapy with a new epileptic drug, topiramate, activated GSH-Px activity in epileptic animals and humans. An observation of lower blood or tissue selenium level and GSH-Px activity in epileptic patients and animals compared to controls in recent publications may support the proposed crucial role of selenium level and GSH-Px activity in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Selenium is incorporated into an interesting class of molecules known as selenoproteins that contain the modified amino acid, selenocysteine. There are signs of selenium and selenoprotein deficiency in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. In conclusion, there is convincing evidence for the proposed crucial role of selenium and deficiency of GSH-Px enzyme activity in epilepsy pathogenesis. Blood GSH-Px activities could be a reliable indicator of selenium deficiency in patients with epilepsy.