Background. In this study, we endeavored to determine whether the incidence of cholelithiasis (CL) was increased in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism on a peritoneal dialysis (PD) program. We also evaluated the factors that might have some influence on the development of CL. Methods. A total of 59 CRF patients undergoing PD were if included in the study. We studied the following groups to determine whether parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were increased in CRF-PD patients: twenty patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism group 1) and 39 patients with normal PTH levels (group 2). ME levels were maintained at three times the upper limit of normal. Biochemical parameters were obtained for each CRF-PD patient. AN patients underwent abdominal ultrasonography to screen for the presence of cholelithiasis. For statistical analysis, X-2, t test, and logistic regression analysis were used; p < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results. We found an almost ten times higher incidence (25% vs. 2.6%) of CL in group I patients with statistical significance (p = 0.007). When the incidence of CL according to sex, creatinine, and PTH levels were considered, female gender, creatinine, and PTH levels were higher in group 1, which was also significant statistically. No significant relationship was detected between gallbladder stone formation and the other analyzed biochemical parameters. Conclusions. We found that the incidence of CL in CRF-PD patients with secondary hyperparathyroidisin was higher than CRF-PD patients with normal PTH levels. It was also detected that female gender, high creatinine levels, and elevated PTH levels might influence the development of CL in CRF-PD patients.