Recovery of water-soluble materials after distillation of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and the use of materials in the production of cake and ice cream


JOURNAL OF FOOD MEASUREMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION, vol.15, no.3, pp.2688-2694, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 15 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11694-021-00851-8
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, CAB Abstracts, Compendex, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.2688-2694
  • Keywords: Hydrodistillation, Phenolics, Sage, Sensory analysis, Spray drying
  • Süleyman Demirel University Affiliated: Yes


Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) is an important medicinal plant from the family of Lamiaceae and is known for its medicinal properties. There are certain ways to separate essential oil of sage, among them hydrodistillation by far the most used industrial techcnique. Hydrodistillation generates a by-product called hydrosol which contain valuable components particularly phenolics. In this research, essential oil of dried sage leaves were separated by hydrodistillation. Hydrosol fraction of sage (SHF) was dried by spray dryer with the aid of maltodextrin. The obtained sage hydrosol powder (SHP) was incorporated into ice cream and cake formulations at the rates of 0.5, 1 and 2% in order to enrich the products. Ice creams displayed higher results than cakes at any enrichment level. The highest scores in antioxidant capacity related tests were observed in samples enriched with 2% SHP. Total phenolic contents of 2% SHP enriched ice cream and cake were 111.03 and 28.95 mg/100 g, respectively. At equal enrichment level by SHP, ice cream samples displayed higher antioxidant capacity results than cake samples for both tests (DPPH and ABTS). This indicated the deteriorative effects of high cooking temperature applied in cake preparation on phenolics of SHP. Moreover, although the results of DPPH and ABTS assays were expressed using the same units (mg TEAC/100 g), DPPH results were higher than that of ABTS, which indicated higher reaction rate of antioxidants with DPPH compared to ABTS. Among the enriched samples, 0.5% SHP enriched ice cream and 0.5% SHP enriched cake displayed the highest overall acceptability score with 7.39 and 6.38, respectively. In most cases, sensory attributes of 0.5% SHP enriched ice cream and cake were not different (p > 0.05) from their respective control samples.