Recent studies have reported oxidative damage due to bisphosphonate (BP) in various cancer tissues and neurons, although basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induced antioxidant effects in the cells. The bFGF may modulate the BP-induced oxidative stress in oral epithelium of rats. This study was undertaken to explore possible beneficial antioxidant effects of bFGF on oxidative stress induced by BP in oral epithelium of rats. Twenty-eight rats were equally divided into four groups. The first group was used as control. The second, third and fourth groups intraperitoneally received BP (zoledronic acid), bFGF and BP + bFGF. At the end of 10 weeks, the rats were sacrificed, and oral epithelium samples were taken for analyses. In BP group, the lipid peroxidation levels were increased in the oral epithelium, while the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the concentrations of total antioxidant status (TAS) were decreased. In rats treated with bFGF, lipid peroxidation levels decreased, and the activities of GSH-Px and concentrations of TAS improved in the oral epithelium. However, zinc and copper levels were decreased in the oral epithelium by BP and bFGF treatments. Concentrations of vitamin E and reduced glutathione in the samples did not change in the groups. In conclusion, treatment with bFGF modulated the antioxidant redox system and reduced the oral epithelium oxidative stress induced by BP. However, zinc and copper levels were decreased by BP and bFGF treatments.