Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of traditional and whitening toothpastes on the color and surface roughness of different composite resin materials. Methods: Eighty disc-shaped samples were prepared for each of the following composite resins: nano-hybrid (Filtek Ultimate Universal; 3 M/ESPE, Saint Paul, USA), micro-hybrid (Charisma Smart; Kulzer, Hanau, Germany) and supra-nano-filled (Omnichroma; Tokuyama, Tokyo, Japan). Each composite-resin sample was randomly divided into the following four subgroups (n = 20 per group): Group 1, control; Group 2, traditional toothpaste (Colgate Total 12; Colgate Palmolive, New York, USA); Group 3, peroxide-based toothpaste (Colgate Optic White; Colgate-Palmolive, New York, USA); and Group 4, blue covarine-based toothpaste (Meridol Gentle White; CP-GABA, Hamburg, Germany). The samples for the toothpaste subgroups were immersed in a coffee solution for 10 min and washed twice a day before each brushing cycle. The specimens were brushed for 30 days. Color analyses were performed using a spectrophotometer (SpectroShade Micro, MHT, Italy). Surface roughness analyses were conducted using a profilometer (Surftest SJ-210 Mitutoyo, Tokyo, Japon). The color and surface roughness analyses were performed at baseline and 1, 7 and 30 days after each treatment. Furthermore, surface topography analysis was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (FEG 250-FeiQuanta, the Netherlands). The data were analysed with a three-way robust ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc correction (p < 0.05). Results: The smallest color change was observed for the micro-hybrid composite resin, and the greatest color change was observed for the nano-hybrid composite resin. Based on the tested composite resin samples, the greatest color change was obtained after using blue covarine–based toothpaste, while the smallest color change was observed after using peroxide-based toothpaste. Moreover, the supra-nano-filled composite resin samples exhibited the lowest roughness values (robust ANOVA test, p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between the mean values of roughness for the composite, group and time interaction (p = 0.937). Conclusion: Charisma Smart composite resin exhibited significantly lower staining than all the other composite resins tested after using all toothpastes included in the study. Further laboratory and clinical studies are needed to fully understand the long-term effectiveness of whitening toothpaste on composite resin materials.