Various studies indicate that the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is a carcinogenic, genotoxic, teratogenic, immunotoxic, and nephrotoxic agent. In the present study, the activities of some enzymes in the serum and liver of rats with ochratoxicosis and the effects of melatonin on these enzymes were investigated. Rats were divided into three equal groups, each consisting of eight rats; control, OTA (289 mug/kg per day) and OTA + melatonin groups for this study. In the OTA treated group, the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were increased in the liver and serum in comparison with the control group. The activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly changed in the serum when compared with controls. Our results showed structural tissue damage in the liver in OTA-treated rats. Melatonin decreased the OTA-induced damage to support the antioxidant defense system and/or with free radical scavenger action.