We investigated the effects of colchicine on oxidative stress and Ca2+ release in serum and polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) of Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) patients with attack, remission and unremission periods. Eighteen FMF patients and six age-matched healthy subjects in four groups were used. The first group was a control. The second group included patients with active FMF. The third and fourth groups were patients with remission and unremission, respectively. Colchicine (1.5 mg/day) was given to the third and fourth groups for 1 month. PMN cells, serum lipid peroxidation and intracellular Ca2+-release levels in the attack and unremission groups were higher than in those in controls, although they were lower in the remission group than in the attack group. Serum vitamin E and beta-carotene concentrations were higher in the remission group than in the control and attack groups. However, PMN, serum lipid peroxidation and Ca2+-release levels were further increased in the unremission group compared to the attack group. Glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione and vitamin A values in the four groups did not change by FMF and colchicine. In conclusion, we observed that colchicine induced protective effects on oxidative stress by modulating vitamin E, beta-carotene and Ca2+-release levels in FMF patients with a remission period.