We investigated the potential cardioprotective effects of misoprostol (MP) on doxorubicin (DOX) induced cardiac damage using histologic and biochemical assessment of rat heart. We used 21 male rats divided randomly into three groups: group 1, control; group 2, DOX; group 3, DOX + MP. The control group was given 0.5 ml 0.9% NaCl intraperitoneally (i.p.) and 1 ml 0.9% NaCl orally for 6 days. DOX was administered as a single dose of 20 mg/kg i.p. on day 3. MP was administered orally for 6 days. We found that treatment with MP decreased significantly serum cardiac troponin-I, brain natriuretic peptide levels, and lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase and creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB activities. DOX increased the malondialdehyde level and decreased the catalase, superoxide dismutase activities and glutathione levels; MP prevented these alterations. MP also decreased NADPH oxidase-4 and caspase-3 levels. In the DOX + MP group, oxidative stress was decreased, antioxidant activity was increased and histopathological changes were decreased compared to the DOX group. Cardiac damage caused by DOX was attenuated by MP treatment owing to the antioxidative and anti-apoptotic effects of MP. MP may be useful for reducing the severity of DOX induced damage.