Cloning and characterization of spike and floral meristem identity genes in miracle wheat (Triticum turgidum var. mirabile)

Güvercin Önder D.

Indian Journal Of Biotechnology, vol.19, no.4, pp.263-272, 2020 (SCI-Expanded)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 19 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Journal Name: Indian Journal Of Biotechnology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.263-272
  • Süleyman Demirel University Affiliated: Yes


One of the most common features of plant species belonging to the Gramineae family is to develop normal (unbranched) spikes. However, this unusual spike morphology places Triticum turgidum var. mirabile into a very special position among all the species of Gramineae. T. turgidum var. mirabile is known as ‘miracle-wheat’ with branched heads. In this study, the full length nucleotide sequences of the three genes APETALA 1 (AP1), APETALA 3 (AP3), PISTILLATA (PI) which are responsible for the formation of the floral meristem identity genes were isolated and characterized. In this context, the partial cDNA fragments obtained by PCR with degenerate primers were analyzed via 3' and 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) analysis to obtain full length genes called TmAP1TmAP3 and TmPI. After cloning and sequencing TmAP1TmAP3 and TmPI genes were found to consist of 1256, 1223 and 1031 nucleotides, respectively. The open reading frames (ORFs) of TmAP1TmAP3 and TmPI encode predicted proteins of 323, 276 and 252 amino acids with a length of 975, 831 and 759 nucleotides, respectively. The predicted proteins of all three genes contained the MADS domain, while the other regions were more variable and less conserved. In comparison to the protein homologs determined for other plants such as Arabidopsis, the deduced TmAP3 and TmPI proteins did not have the conserved euAP3 and PI motifs. Southern blot analyse showed that TmAP1 and TmPI genes had single copies and TmAP3 gene had 2 copies in the T. turgidum var. mirabile genome.