Invasive fungal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the expanding immunocompromised population. Among these infections, the incidence of invasive aspergillosis (IA) and its financial burden have increased significantly in recent years with the parallel increase in the number of immunocompromised pediatric patients. IA is almost exclusively seen in critically ill patients who are severely immunocompromised, with underlying illness or undergoing aggressive treatment regimens. Patients with hematological malignancies and/or transplant recipients have the highest risk for developing IA infection. Diagnosis of IA is often delayed owing to a lack of noninvasive gold-standard diagnostic techniques that can be readily performed. Early treatment before the invasion and dissemination of aspergillosis to adjacent tissues and/or organs offers a higher survival chance for the patient. This article focuses on recent findings of IA epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment in pediatric patients.