Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis are the most common diseases of the musculoskeletal system, which greatly reduce the quality of life of people. In addition to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs used in treatment, molecules isolated from natural sources are also considered as new options in the treatment of these inflammatory diseases. In this review, in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies on standardized rosehip (Rosa canina L.) fruits without seed used for joint health due to their anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant effects and active compounds isolated from these fruits are presented. It is reported that the anti-inflammatory action mechanism of standardized rosehip powder is due to its antioxidant activity, inhibiting NF-B signaling and pro-inflammatory enzymes, decreasing inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production, and lowering C reactive protein levels. The galactolipid (2S)-1,2-di-O-[(9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadeca-9,12,15trienoyl]-3-O-ss-D-galactopyranosyl glycerol (GOPO), isolated from rosehip seeds and fruits, has been found to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory effects in vitro, clinically reducing the complaints of patients with osteoarthritis and improving their quality of life. Additionally, triterpene acid mixture (ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, and betulinic acid), also isolated from rosehip, has been reported to reduce the production of interleukin-6 and Tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Studies on the anti-inflammatory mechanism of action of rosehip and its active ingredients and their effects on osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis have shown that more detailed clinical studies are required on standardized rosehip powders and preparations enriched in active compounds.