The major cause of death among chronic kidney disease patients is cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular and kidney disease are interrelated and increase the severity of each other. Dyslipidemia is one the major causes of cardiovascular disease among chronic kidney disease patients along with diabetes and hypertension. The relationship between dyslipidemia and chronic kidney disease is reciprocal. Dyslipidemia is known to be a risk factor for chronic kidney disease and chronic kidney disease causes major alterations on lipoprotein profile, defined as the dyslipidemic profile of chronic kidney disease patients. Increased triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein and oxidized low density lipoprotein as well as decreased high density lipoprotein and changes in the composition of lipoproteins contribute to the dyslipidemic profile. Treatment strategies targeting the dyslipidemic profile of chronic kidney disease could contribute to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Current therapy is based on the patient kidney function and consist mainly of statins. This review focuses on the effects of chronic kidney disease on the lipoprotein profile and how this may impact novel therapeutic approaches to cardiovascular risk.