Reactive oxygen species caused by organ ophosphates may be involved in the toxicity of various pesticides. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of acute exposure to organophosphate insecticide diazinon (DI) and possible ameliorating role of vitamins E and C, with the following parameters: lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activity of the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in rat erythrocytes. The experimental groups were arranged as control group, DI-treated group (DI) and DI + vitamin E + vitamin C-treated group (DI + Vit). DI + Vit groups were treated orally with a single dose of 335 mg/kg DI body weight. Vitamins E and C were injected at doses of 150 mg/kg body weight intramuscular (in) and 200 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneal (ip), respectively, 30 min after the treatment of DI in DI + Vit group. Blood samples were taken 24 h after the DI. The results showed that DI administration caused to increase in LPO and the activities of SOD and GSH-Px enzymes in erythrocytes. Also, the combination of vitamins E and C decreased LPO and the activities of GSH-Px and SOD compared with the DI group. In conclusion, although treating rats with single dose DI increases LPO and antioxidant enzyme activities in erythrocytes, vitamins C and E combination can reduce LPO caused by DI.